PostgreSQL Error Reporting and Logging

Where to Log

log_destination (string)

PostgreSQL supports several methods for logging server messages, including stderr, csvlog and syslog. On Windows, eventlog is also supported. Set this parameter to a list of desired log destinations separated by commas. The default is to log to stderr only. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

If csvlog is included in log_destination, log entries are output in “comma separated value” (CSV) format, which is convenient for loading logs into programs. logging_collector must be enabled to generate CSV-format log output.

When either stderr or csvlog are included, the file current_logfiles is created to record the location of the log file(s) currently in use by the logging collector and the associated logging destination. This provides a convenient way to find the logs currently in use by the instance. Here is an example of this file’s content:

stderr log/postgresql.log
csvlog log/postgresql.csv

current_logfiles is recreated when a new log file is created as an effect of rotation, and when log_destination is reloaded. It is removed when neither stderr nor csvlog are included in log_destination, and when the logging collector is disabled.

logging_collector (boolean)

This parameter enables the logging collector, which is a background process that captures log messages sent to stderr and redirects them into log files. This approach is often more useful than logging to syslog, since some types of messages might not appear in syslog output. (One common example is dynamic-linker failure messages; another is error messages produced by scripts such as archive_command.) This parameter can only be set at server start.

log_directory (string)

When logging_collector is enabled, this parameter determines the directory in which log files will be created. It can be specified as an absolute path, or relative to the cluster data directory. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line. The default is log.

log_filename (string)

When logging_collector is enabled, this parameter sets the file names of the created log files. The value is treated as a strftime pattern, so %-escapes can be used to specify time-varying file names. (Note that if there are any time-zone-dependent %-escapes, the computation is done in the zone specified by log_timezone.) The supported %-escapes are similar to those listed in the Open Group’s strftime specification. Note that the system’s strftime is not used directly, so platform-specific (nonstandard) extensions do not work. The default is postgresql-%Y-%m-%d_%H%M%S.log.

If you specify a file name without escapes, you should plan to use a log rotation utility to avoid eventually filling the entire disk. In releases prior to 8.4, if no % escapes were present, PostgreSQL would append the epoch of the new log file’s creation time, but this is no longer the case.

If CSV-format output is enabled in log_destination.csv will be appended to the timestamped log file name to create the file name for CSV-format output. (If log_filename ends in .log, the suffix is replaced instead.)

This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

log_file_mode (integer)

On Unix systems this parameter sets the permissions for log files when logging_collector is enabled. (On Microsoft Windows this parameter is ignored.) The parameter value is expected to be a numeric mode specified in the format accepted by the chmod and umask system calls. (To use the customary octal format the number must start with a 0 (zero).)

The default permissions are 0600, meaning only the server owner can read or write the log files. The other commonly useful setting is 0640, allowing members of the owner’s group to read the files. Note however that to make use of such a setting, you’ll need to alter log_directory to store the files somewhere outside the cluster data directory. In any case, it’s unwise to make the log files world-readable, since they might contain sensitive data.

This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

log_rotation_age (integer)

When logging_collector is enabled, this parameter determines the maximum amount of time to use an individual log file, after which a new log file will be created. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as minutes. The default is 24 hours. Set to zero to disable time-based creation of new log files. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

log_rotation_size (integer)

When logging_collector is enabled, this parameter determines the maximum size of an individual log file. After this amount of data has been emitted into a log file, a new log file will be created. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as kilobytes. The default is 10 megabytes. Set to zero to disable size-based creation of new log files. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

log_truncate_on_rotation (boolean)

When logging_collector is enabled, this parameter will cause PostgreSQL to truncate (overwrite), rather than append to, any existing log file of the same name. However, truncation will occur only when a new file is being opened due to time-based rotation, not during server startup or size-based rotation. When off, pre-existing files will be appended to in all cases. For example, using this setting in combination with a log_filename like postgresql-%H.log would result in generating twenty-four hourly log files and then cyclically overwriting them. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

Example: To keep 7 days of logs, one log file per day named server_log.Monserver_log.Tue, etc, and automatically overwrite last week’s log with this week’s log, set log_filename to server_log.%alog_truncate_on_rotation to on, and log_rotation_age to 1440.

Example: To keep 24 hours of logs, one log file per hour, but also rotate sooner if the log file size exceeds 1GB, set log_filename to server_log.%H%Mlog_truncate_on_rotation to onlog_rotation_age to 60, and log_rotation_size to 1000000. Including %M in log_filename allows any size-driven rotations that might occur to select a file name different from the hour’s initial file name.

syslog_facility (enum)

When logging to syslog is enabled, this parameter determines the syslog “facility” to be used. You can choose from LOCAL0LOCAL1LOCAL2LOCAL3LOCAL4LOCAL5LOCAL6LOCAL7; the default is LOCAL0. See also the documentation of your system’s syslog daemon. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

syslog_ident (string)

When logging to syslog is enabled, this parameter determines the program name used to identify PostgreSQL messages in syslog logs. The default is postgres. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

syslog_sequence_numbers (boolean)

When logging to syslog and this is on (the default), then each message will be prefixed by an increasing sequence number (such as [2]). This circumvents the “— last message repeated N times —” suppression that many syslog implementations perform by default. In more modern syslog implementations, repeated message suppression can be configured (for example, $RepeatedMsgReduction in rsyslog), so this might not be necessary. Also, you could turn this off if you actually want to suppress repeated messages.

This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

syslog_split_messages (boolean)

When logging to syslog is enabled, this parameter determines how messages are delivered to syslog. When on (the default), messages are split by lines, and long lines are split so that they will fit into 1024 bytes, which is a typical size limit for traditional syslog implementations. When off, PostgreSQL server log messages are delivered to the syslog service as is, and it is up to the syslog service to cope with the potentially bulky messages.

If syslog is ultimately logging to a text file, then the effect will be the same either way, and it is best to leave the setting on, since most syslog implementations either cannot handle large messages or would need to be specially configured to handle them. But if syslog is ultimately writing into some other medium, it might be necessary or more useful to keep messages logically together.

This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

event_source (string)

When logging to event log is enabled, this parameter determines the program name used to identify PostgreSQL messages in the log. The default is PostgreSQL. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

When to Log

log_min_messages (enum)

Controls which message levels are written to the server log. Valid values are DEBUG5DEBUG4DEBUG3DEBUG2DEBUG1INFONOTICEWARNINGERRORLOGFATAL, and PANIC. Each level includes all the levels that follow it. The later the level, the fewer messages are sent to the log. The default is WARNING. Note that LOG has a different rank here than in client_min_messages. Only superusers can change this setting.

log_min_error_statement (enum)

Controls which SQL statements that cause an error condition are recorded in the server log. The current SQL statement is included in the log entry for any message of the specified severity or higher. Valid values are DEBUG5DEBUG4DEBUG3DEBUG2DEBUG1INFONOTICEWARNINGERRORLOGFATAL, and PANIC. The default is ERROR, which means statements causing errors, log messages, fatal errors, or panics will be logged. To effectively turn off logging of failing statements, set this parameter to PANIC. Only superusers can change this setting.

log_min_duration_statement (integer)

Causes the duration of each completed statement to be logged if the statement ran for at least the specified amount of time. For example, if you set it to 250ms then all SQL statements that run 250ms or longer will be logged. Enabling this parameter can be helpful in tracking down unoptimized queries in your applications. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as milliseconds. Setting this to zero prints all statement durations. -1 (the default) disables logging statement durations. Only superusers can change this setting.

This overrides log_min_duration_sample, meaning that queries with duration exceeding this setting are not subject to sampling and are always logged.

For clients using extended query protocol, durations of the Parse, Bind, and Execute steps are logged independently.

log_min_duration_sample (integer)

Allows sampling the duration of completed statements that ran for at least the specified amount of time. This produces the same kind of log entries as log_min_duration_statement, but only for a subset of the executed statements, with sample rate controlled by log_statement_sample_rate. For example, if you set it to 100ms then all SQL statements that run 100ms or longer will be considered for sampling. Enabling this parameter can be helpful when the traffic is too high to log all queries. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as milliseconds. Setting this to zero samples all statement durations. -1 (the default) disables sampling statement durations. Only superusers can change this setting.

This setting has lower priority than log_min_duration_statement, meaning that statements with durations exceeding log_min_duration_statement are not subject to sampling and are always logged.

Other notes for log_min_duration_statement apply also to this setting.

log_statement_sample_rate (floating point)

Determines the fraction of statements with duration exceeding log_min_duration_sample that will be logged. Sampling is stochastic, for example 0.5 means there is statistically one chance in two that any given statement will be logged. The default is 1.0, meaning to log all sampled statements. Setting this to zero disables sampled statement-duration logging, the same as setting log_min_duration_sample to -1. Only superusers can change this setting.

log_transaction_sample_rate (floating point)

Sets the fraction of transactions whose statements are all logged, in addition to statements logged for other reasons. It applies to each new transaction regardless of its statements’ durations. Sampling is stochastic, for example 0.1 means there is statistically one chance in ten that any given transaction will be logged. log_transaction_sample_rate can be helpful to construct a sample of transactions. The default is 0, meaning not to log statements from any additional transactions. Setting this to 1 logs all statements of all transactions. Only superusers can change this setting.

Table below explains the message severity levels used by PostgreSQL. If logging output is sent to syslog or Windows’ eventlog, the severity levels are translated as shown in the table.

Message Severity Levels

SeverityUsagesyslogeventlog
DEBUG1 .. DEBUG5Provides successively-more-detailed information for use by developers.DEBUGINFORMATION
INFOProvides information implicitly requested by the user, e.g., output from VACUUM VERBOSE.INFOINFORMATION
NOTICEProvides information that might be helpful to users, e.g., notice of truncation of long identifiers.NOTICEINFORMATION
WARNINGProvides warnings of likely problems, e.g., COMMIT outside a transaction block.NOTICEWARNING
ERRORReports an error that caused the current command to abort.WARNINGERROR
LOGReports information of interest to administrators, e.g., checkpoint activity.INFOINFORMATION
FATALReports an error that caused the current session to abort.ERRERROR
PANICReports an error that caused all database sessions to abort.CRITERROR

What to Log

application_name (string)

The application_name can be any string of less than NAMEDATALEN characters (64 characters in a standard build). It is typically set by an application upon connection to the server. The name will be displayed in the pg_stat_activity view and included in CSV log entries. It can also be included in regular log entries via the log_line_prefix parameter. Only printable ASCII characters may be used in the application_name value. Other characters will be replaced with question marks (?).

debug_print_parse (boolean)
debug_print_rewritten (boolean)
debug_print_plan (boolean)

These parameters enable various debugging output to be emitted. When set, they print the resulting parse tree, the query rewriter output, or the execution plan for each executed query. These messages are emitted at LOG message level, so by default they will appear in the server log but will not be sent to the client. You can change that by adjusting client_min_messages and/or log_min_messages. These parameters are off by default.

debug_pretty_print (boolean)

When set, debug_pretty_print indents the messages produced by debug_print_parsedebug_print_rewritten, or debug_print_plan. This results in more readable but much longer output than the “compact” format used when it is off. It is on by default.

log_checkpoints (boolean)

Causes checkpoints and restartpoints to be logged in the server log. Some statistics are included in the log messages, including the number of buffers written and the time spent writing them. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line. The default is off.

log_connections (boolean)

Causes each attempted connection to the server to be logged, as well as successful completion of client authentication. Only superusers can change this parameter at session start, and it cannot be changed at all within a session. The default is off.

log_disconnections (boolean)

Causes session terminations to be logged. The log output provides information similar to log_connections, plus the duration of the session. Only superusers can change this parameter at session start, and it cannot be changed at all within a session. The default is off.

log_duration (boolean)

Causes the duration of every completed statement to be logged. The default is off. Only superusers can change this setting.

For clients using extended query protocol, durations of the Parse, Bind, and Execute steps are logged independently.

log_error_verbosity (enum)

Controls the amount of detail written in the server log for each message that is logged. Valid values are TERSEDEFAULT, and VERBOSE, each adding more fields to displayed messages. TERSE excludes the logging of DETAILHINTQUERY, and CONTEXT error information. VERBOSE output includes the SQLSTATE error code and the source code file name, function name, and line number that generated the error. Only superusers can change this setting.

log_hostname (boolean)

By default, connection log messages only show the IP address of the connecting host. Turning this parameter on causes logging of the host name as well. Note that depending on your host name resolution setup this might impose a non-negligible performance penalty. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

log_line_prefix (string)

This is a printf-style string that is output at the beginning of each log line. % characters begin “escape sequences” that are replaced with status information as outlined below. Unrecognized escapes are ignored. Other characters are copied straight to the log line. Some escapes are only recognized by session processes, and will be treated as empty by background processes such as the main server process. Status information may be aligned either left or right by specifying a numeric literal after the % and before the option. A negative value will cause the status information to be padded on the right with spaces to give it a minimum width, whereas a positive value will pad on the left. Padding can be useful to aid human readability in log files.

This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line. The default is '%m [%p] ' which logs a time stamp and the process ID.

EscapeEffectSession only
%aApplication nameyes
%uUser nameyes
%dDatabase nameyes
%rRemote host name or IP address, and remote portyes
%hRemote host name or IP addressyes
%bBackend typeno
%pProcess IDno
%tTime stamp without millisecondsno
%mTime stamp with millisecondsno
%nTime stamp with milliseconds (as a Unix epoch)no
%iCommand tag: type of session’s current commandyes
%eSQLSTATE error codeno
%cSession ID: see belowno
%lNumber of the log line for each session or process, starting at 1no
%sProcess start time stampno
%vVirtual transaction ID (backendID/localXID)no
%xTransaction ID (0 if none is assigned)no
%qProduces no output, but tells non-session processes to stop at this point in the string; ignored by session processesno
%%Literal %no

The backend type corresponds to the column backend_type in the view pg_stat_activity, but additional types can appear in the log that don’t show in that view.

The %c escape prints a quasi-unique session identifier, consisting of two 4-byte hexadecimal numbers (without leading zeros) separated by a dot. The numbers are the process start time and the process ID, so %c can also be used as a space saving way of printing those items. For example, to generate the session identifier from pg_stat_activity, use this query:

SELECT to_hex(trunc(EXTRACT(EPOCH FROM backend_start))::integer) || '.' ||
       to_hex(pid)
FROM pg_stat_activity;

log_lock_waits (boolean)

Controls whether a log message is produced when a session waits longer than deadlock_timeout to acquire a lock. This is useful in determining if lock waits are causing poor performance. The default is off. Only superusers can change this setting.

log_parameter_max_length (integer)

If greater than zero, each bind parameter value logged with a non-error statement-logging message is trimmed to this many bytes. Zero disables logging of bind parameters for non-error statement logs. -1 (the default) allows bind parameters to be logged in full. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as bytes. Only superusers can change this setting.

This setting only affects log messages printed as a result of log_statementlog_duration, and related settings. Non-zero values of this setting add some overhead, particularly if parameters are sent in binary form, since then conversion to text is required.

log_parameter_max_length_on_error (integer)

If greater than zero, each bind parameter value reported in error messages is trimmed to this many bytes. Zero (the default) disables including bind parameters in error messages. -1 allows bind parameters to be printed in full. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as bytes.

Non-zero values of this setting add overhead, as PostgreSQL will need to store textual representations of parameter values in memory at the start of each statement, whether or not an error eventually occurs. The overhead is greater when bind parameters are sent in binary form than when they are sent as text, since the former case requires data conversion while the latter only requires copying the string.

log_statement (enum)

Controls which SQL statements are logged. Valid values are none (off), ddlmod, and all (all statements). ddl logs all data definition statements, such as CREATEALTER, and DROP statements. mod logs all ddl statements, plus data-modifying statements such as INSERTUPDATEDELETETRUNCATE, and COPY FROMPREPAREEXECUTE, and EXPLAIN ANALYZE statements are also logged if their contained command is of an appropriate type. For clients using extended query protocol, logging occurs when an Execute message is received, and values of the Bind parameters are included (with any embedded single-quote marks doubled).

The default is none. Only superusers can change this setting.

log_replication_commands (boolean)

Causes each replication command to be logged in the server log. The default value is off. Only superusers can change this setting.

log_temp_files (integer)

Controls logging of temporary file names and sizes. Temporary files can be created for sorts, hashes, and temporary query results. If enabled by this setting, a log entry is emitted for each temporary file when it is deleted. A value of zero logs all temporary file information, while positive values log only files whose size is greater than or equal to the specified amount of data. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as kilobytes. The default setting is -1, which disables such logging. Only superusers can change this setting.

log_timezone (string)

Sets the time zone used for timestamps written in the server log. Unlike TimeZone, this value is cluster-wide, so that all sessions will report timestamps consistently. The built-in default is GMT, but that is typically overridden in postgresql.conf; initdb will install a setting there corresponding to its system environment. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

Using CSV-Format Log Output

Including csvlog in the log_destination list provides a convenient way to import log files into a database table. This option emits log lines in comma-separated-values (CSV) format, with these columns: time stamp with milliseconds, user name, database name, process ID, client host:port number, session ID, per-session line number, command tag, session start time, virtual transaction ID, regular transaction ID, error severity, SQLSTATE code, error message, error message detail, hint, internal query that led to the error (if any), character count of the error position therein, error context, user query that led to the error (if any and enabled by log_min_error_statement), character count of the error position therein, location of the error in the PostgreSQL source code (if log_error_verbosity is set to verbose), application name, and backend type. Here is a sample table definition for storing CSV-format log output:

CREATE TABLE postgres_log
(
  log_time timestamp(3) with time zone,
  user_name text,
  database_name text,
  process_id integer,
  connection_from text,
  session_id text,
  session_line_num bigint,
  command_tag text,
  session_start_time timestamp with time zone,
  virtual_transaction_id text,
  transaction_id bigint,
  error_severity text,
  sql_state_code text,
  message text,
  detail text,
  hint text,
  internal_query text,
  internal_query_pos integer,
  context text,
  query text,
  query_pos integer,
  location text,
  application_name text,
  backend_type text,
  PRIMARY KEY (session_id, session_line_num)
);

To import a log file into this table, use the COPY FROM command:

COPY postgres_log FROM '/full/path/to/logfile.csv' WITH csv;

It is also possible to access the file as a foreign table, using the supplied file_fdw module.

There are a few things you need to do to simplify importing CSV log files:

  1. Set log_filename and log_rotation_age to provide a consistent, predictable naming scheme for your log files. This lets you predict what the file name will be and know when an individual log file is complete and therefore ready to be imported.
  2. Set log_rotation_size to 0 to disable size-based log rotation, as it makes the log file name difficult to predict.
  3. Set log_truncate_on_rotation to on so that old log data isn’t mixed with the new in the same file.
  4. The table definition above includes a primary key specification. This is useful to protect against accidentally importing the same information twice. The COPY command commits all of the data it imports at one time, so any error will cause the entire import to fail. If you import a partial log file and later import the file again when it is complete, the primary key violation will cause the import to fail. Wait until the log is complete and closed before importing. This procedure will also protect against accidentally importing a partial line that hasn’t been completely written, which would also cause COPY to fail.

Process Title

These settings control how process titles of server processes are modified. Process titles are typically viewed using programs like ps or, on Windows, Process Explorer.

cluster_name (string)

Sets a name that identifies this database cluster (instance) for various purposes. The cluster name appears in the process title for all server processes in this cluster. Moreover, it is the default application name for a standby connection (see synchronous_standby_names.)

The name can be any string of less than NAMEDATALEN characters (64 characters in a standard build). Only printable ASCII characters may be used in the cluster_name value. Other characters will be replaced with question marks (?). No name is shown if this parameter is set to the empty string '' (which is the default). This parameter can only be set at server start.

update_process_title (boolean)

Enables updating of the process title every time a new SQL command is received by the server. This setting defaults to on on most platforms, but it defaults to off on Windows due to that platform’s larger overhead for updating the process title. Only superusers can change this setting.

Run-time Statistics

Query and Index Statistics Collector

These parameters control server-wide statistics collection features. When statistics collection is enabled, the data that is produced can be accessed via the pg_stat and pg_statio family of system views.

track_activities (boolean)

Enables the collection of information on the currently executing command of each session, along with the time when that command began execution. This parameter is on by default. Note that even when enabled, this information is not visible to all users, only to superusers and the user owning the session being reported on, so it should not represent a security risk. Only superusers can change this setting.

track_activity_query_size (integer)

Specifies the amount of memory reserved to store the text of the currently executing command for each active session, for the pg_stat_activity.query field. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as bytes. The default value is 1024 bytes. This parameter can only be set at server start.

track_counts (boolean)

Enables collection of statistics on database activity. This parameter is on by default, because the autovacuum daemon needs the collected information. Only superusers can change this setting.

track_io_timing (boolean)

Enables timing of database I/O calls. This parameter is off by default, because it will repeatedly query the operating system for the current time, which may cause significant overhead on some platforms. You can use the pg_test_timing tool to measure the overhead of timing on your system. I/O timing information is displayed in pg_stat_database, in the output of EXPLAIN when the BUFFERS option is used, and by pg_stat_statements. Only superusers can change this setting.

track_functions (enum)

Enables tracking of function call counts and time used. Specify pl to track only procedural-language functions, all to also track SQL and C language functions. The default is none, which disables function statistics tracking. Only superusers can change this setting.

stats_temp_directory (string)

Sets the directory to store temporary statistics data in. This can be a path relative to the data directory or an absolute path. The default is pg_stat_tmp. Pointing this at a RAM-based file system will decrease physical I/O requirements and can lead to improved performance. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

Statistics Monitoring

log_statement_stats (boolean)
log_parser_stats (boolean)
log_planner_stats (boolean)
log_executor_stats (boolean)

For each query, output performance statistics of the respective module to the server log. This is a crude profiling instrument, similar to the Unix getrusage() operating system facility. log_statement_stats reports total statement statistics, while the others report per-module statistics. log_statement_stats cannot be enabled together with any of the per-module options. All of these options are disabled by default. Only superusers can change these settings.

Automatic Vacuuming

These settings control the behavior of the autovacuum feature. Note that many of these settings can be overridden on a per-table basis; see Storage Parameters.

autovacuum (boolean)

Controls whether the server should run the autovacuum launcher daemon. This is on by default; however, track_counts must also be enabled for autovacuum to work. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line; however, autovacuuming can be disabled for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

Note that even when this parameter is disabled, the system will launch autovacuum processes if necessary to prevent transaction ID wraparound.

log_autovacuum_min_duration (integer)

Causes each action executed by autovacuum to be logged if it ran for at least the specified amount of time. Setting this to zero logs all autovacuum actions. -1 (the default) disables logging autovacuum actions. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as milliseconds. For example, if you set this to 250ms then all automatic vacuums and analyzes that run 250ms or longer will be logged. In addition, when this parameter is set to any value other than -1, a message will be logged if an autovacuum action is skipped due to a conflicting lock or a concurrently dropped relation. Enabling this parameter can be helpful in tracking autovacuum activity. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line; but the setting can be overridden for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

autovacuum_max_workers (integer)

Specifies the maximum number of autovacuum processes (other than the autovacuum launcher) that may be running at any one time. The default is three. This parameter can only be set at server start.

autovacuum_naptime (integer)

Specifies the minimum delay between autovacuum runs on any given database. In each round the daemon examines the database and issues VACUUM and ANALYZE commands as needed for tables in that database. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as seconds. The default is one minute (1min). This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line.

autovacuum_vacuum_threshold (integer)

Specifies the minimum number of updated or deleted tuples needed to trigger a VACUUM in any one table. The default is 50 tuples. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line; but the setting can be overridden for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

autovacuum_vacuum_insert_threshold (integer)

Specifies the number of inserted tuples needed to trigger a VACUUM in any one table. The default is 1000 tuples. If -1 is specified, autovacuum will not trigger a VACUUM operation on any tables based on the number of inserts. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line; but the setting can be overridden for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

autovacuum_analyze_threshold (integer)

Specifies the minimum number of inserted, updated or deleted tuples needed to trigger an ANALYZE in any one table. The default is 50 tuples. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line; but the setting can be overridden for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor (floating point)

Specifies a fraction of the table size to add to autovacuum_vacuum_threshold when deciding whether to trigger a VACUUM. The default is 0.2 (20% of table size). This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line; but the setting can be overridden for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

autovacuum_vacuum_insert_scale_factor (floating point)

Specifies a fraction of the table size to add to autovacuum_vacuum_insert_threshold when deciding whether to trigger a VACUUM. The default is 0.2 (20% of table size). This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line; but the setting can be overridden for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor (floating point)

Specifies a fraction of the table size to add to autovacuum_analyze_threshold when deciding whether to trigger an ANALYZE. The default is 0.1 (10% of table size). This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line; but the setting can be overridden for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

autovacuum_freeze_max_age (integer)

Specifies the maximum age (in transactions) that a table’s pg_class.relfrozenxid field can attain before a VACUUM operation is forced to prevent transaction ID wraparound within the table. Note that the system will launch autovacuum processes to prevent wraparound even when autovacuum is otherwise disabled.

Vacuum also allows removal of old files from the pg_xact subdirectory, which is why the default is a relatively low 200 million transactions. This parameter can only be set at server start, but the setting can be reduced for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

autovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_age (integer)

Specifies the maximum age (in multixacts) that a table’s pg_class.relminmxid field can attain before a VACUUM operation is forced to prevent multixact ID wraparound within the table. Note that the system will launch autovacuum processes to prevent wraparound even when autovacuum is otherwise disabled.

Vacuuming multixacts also allows removal of old files from the pg_multixact/members and pg_multixact/offsets subdirectories, which is why the default is a relatively low 400 million multixacts. This parameter can only be set at server start, but the setting can be reduced for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

autovacuum_vacuum_cost_delay (floating point)

Specifies the cost delay value that will be used in automatic VACUUM operations. If -1 is specified, the regular vacuum_cost_delay value will be used. If this value is specified without units, it is taken as milliseconds. The default value is 2 milliseconds. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line; but the setting can be overridden for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.

autovacuum_vacuum_cost_limit (integer)

Specifies the cost limit value that will be used in automatic VACUUM operations. If -1 is specified (which is the default), the regular vacuum_cost_limit value will be used. Note that the value is distributed proportionally among the running autovacuum workers, if there is more than one, so that the sum of the limits for each worker does not exceed the value of this variable. This parameter can only be set in the postgresql.conf file or on the server command line; but the setting can be overridden for individual tables by changing table storage parameters.