Oracle Automatic Storage Management Oracle ASM disk groups, includes how to create, alter, drop, mount, and dismount Oracle ASM disk groups. There are a few basic points to consider when planning to use ASM:
- In most cases you will only need two disk groups (DATA and FRA), where DATA holds all database related files and FRA holds the fast recovery area, including multiplexed copies on online redo logs and controlfiles. Typically, the FRA disk group will be twice the size of the DATA disk group, since it must hold all backups.
- Oracle recommend a minimum of 4 LUNs per disk group, with LUNs using hardware RAID and external redundancy if possible.
- All LUNs within a disk group should be the same size and have the same performance characteristics.
- LUNs should be made up from disks dedicated to Oracle, not shared with other applications.
Now let’s look at basic administration of disk groups.
Disk groups are created using the
CREATE DISKGROUP statement. This statement allows you to specify the level of redundancy:
NORMAL REDUNDANCY– Two-way mirroring, requiring two failure groups.
HIGH REDUNDANCY– Three-way mirroring, requiring three failure groups.
EXTERNAL REDUNDANCY– No mirroring for disks that are already protected using hardware mirroring or RAID. If you have hardware RAID it should be used in preference to ASM redundancy, so this will be the standard option for most installations.
In addition failure groups and preferred names for disks can be defined. If the
NAME clause is omitted the disks are given a system generated name like “disk_group_1_0001”. The
FORCE option can be used to move a disk from another disk group into this one.
CREATE DISKGROUP disk_group_1 NORMAL REDUNDANCY FAILGROUP failure_group_1 DISK '/devices/diska1' NAME diska1, '/devices/diska2' NAME diska2 FAILGROUP failure_group_2 DISK '/devices/diskb1' NAME diskb1, '/devices/diskb2' NAME diskb2;
Disk groups can be deleted using the
DROP DISKGROUP statement.
DROP DISKGROUP disk_group_1 INCLUDING CONTENTS;
Disks can be added or removed from disk groups using the
ALTER DISKGROUP statement. Remember that the wildcard “*” can be used to reference disks so long as the resulting string does not match a disk already used by an existing disk group.
-- Add disks. ALTER DISKGROUP disk_group_1 ADD DISK '/devices/disk*3', '/devices/disk*4'; -- Drop a disk. ALTER DISKGROUP disk_group_1 DROP DISK diska2;
Disks can be resized using the
RESIZE clause of the
ALTER DISKGROUP statement. The statement can be used to resize individual disks, all disks in a failure group or all disks in the disk group. If the
SIZE clause is omitted the disks are resized to the size of the disk returned by the OS.
-- Resize a specific disk. ALTER DISKGROUP disk_group_1 RESIZE DISK diska1 SIZE 100G; -- Resize all disks in a failure group. ALTER DISKGROUP disk_group_1 RESIZE DISKS IN FAILGROUP failure_group_1 SIZE 100G; -- Resize all disks in a disk group. ALTER DISKGROUP disk_group_1 RESIZE ALL SIZE 100G;
UNDROP DISKS clause of the
ALTER DISKGROUP statement allows pending disk drops to be undone. It will not revert drops that have completed, or disk drops associated with the dropping of a disk group.
ALTER DISKGROUP disk_group_1 UNDROP DISKS;
Disk groups can be rebalanced manually using the
REBALANCE clause of the
ALTER DISKGROUP statement. If the
POWER clause is omitted the
ASM_POWER_LIMIT parameter value is used. Rebalancing is only needed when the speed of the automatic rebalancing is not appropriate.
ALTER DISKGROUP disk_group_1 REBALANCE POWER 5;
Disk groups are mounted at ASM instance startup and unmounted at ASM instance shutdown. Manual mounting and dismounting can be accomplished using the
ALTER DISKGROUP statement as seen below.
ALTER DISKGROUP ALL DISMOUNT; ALTER DISKGROUP ALL MOUNT; ALTER DISKGROUP disk_group_1 DISMOUNT; ALTER DISKGROUP disk_group_1 MOUNT;
Check out Oracle ASM Disk Groups in Oracle 19c
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